Prostate cancer treatment

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What is prostate cancer?

The prostate is the prostate gland of men, which performs one of the most important functions - the sexual. It forms the basis of ejaculatory fluid, and also plays the role of a valve during an erection in order to close the urinary canal.

Prostate cancer is a cancerous tumor that affects the prostate gland, disrupting its function and, if untreated, grows on surrounding tissues and organs, ultimately leading to the death of the patient.

 

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Symptoms of prostate cancer, like any other cancer, depend on the stage.

The first stage of prostate cancer

At the initial stages, when the size of the tumor does not exceed 1-2 cm, the patient does not feel any symptoms, the tumor is very rarely diagnosed at this stage, although the effectiveness of treatment at this time is maximum.

Stage Two Prostate Cancer

In the second stage, the symptoms of the tumor are very similar to the symptoms of prostatitis, very often it is prostatitis that over time provokes the formation of a tumor.

  • Urination problems
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Painful and frequent urination
  • Painful ejaculation

Also, at this stage, an increase in regional lymph nodes (those located nearby) is possible, therefore, the doctor is likely to notice this and suspect something is wrong with the urologist.

Stage Three Prostate Cancer

In the third stage, the tissue of the tumor ruptures the capsule of the prostate gland and enters the surrounding tissue. In this case, the above symptoms are connected with the discharge of blood during urination and ejaculation, the unpleasant smell of these secretions, the appearance of sharp pains during urination and ejaculation

 

Stage Four Prostate Cancer

Metastases to distant organs, Symptoms, as with any stage 4 cancer - severe pain, exhaustion, weight loss, this is not about healing, but about prolonging life.

How to diagnose early stage prostate cancer?

To diagnose any cancer at an early stage, you need to undergo regular examinations by doctors, in this case, a urologist, and also do regular screening tests, especially if there is a tendency to cancer in the family, or if there is a tendency to get prostatitis. The simplest way is to take a PSA test (prostate specific antigen), it will show if there are damaged prostate cells in the blood (as it happens with tumors). In any case, confirmation of the diagnosis is a biopsy study, that is, an operation to remove the tumor, and only after that it will already be clear whether it is cancer or not

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Treatment for prostate cancer as well as symptoms depends on the stage at which the disease was diagnosed.

Stage One Prostate Cancer Treatment
At the first stage, you can use both surgical treatment (removal of the prostate gland completely) and conservative treatment

Conservative treatment may include:

  • Brachytherapy
  • Ultrasound (HIFU)
  • Cryoablation

Brachytherapy

is the placement of radioactive isotopes near a tumor or directly into a tumor, which eventually destroy cancer cells. The radioactive substance is placed in a very small size social titanium, silicon or biopolymer capsule. The advantages of this treatment method are that the patient can already be discharged from the hospital in a few hours. This method is shown only in the first stage of the tumor and small size. The success of this treatment method is 66-90%

Ultrasound (HIFU)

Using ultrasound of a very high frequency, tumor tissue inside the prostate gland can be precisely removed. Ultrasound locally very strongly heats the tumor cells and they die. Such treatment is carried out without incisions and takes only about 3 hours. The success of such treatment varies about 80%

Cryoablation

Low temperature treatment method. A puncture is used, argon gas, which has a very low temperature, is introduced into the tumor site with a thin needle. Tumor cells freeze and die, after which the place of frostbite is slowly returned to normal temperature with helium through the same needle.

For small tumors, the percentage of recovery after this method of treatment is 90%

Stage Two Prostate Cancer Treatment
In the second stage, the methods described above sharply lose their effectiveness, since the tumor is already large and it is difficult to remove all malignant tissues with conservative methods.

Here the main one is the surgical method.

Basically, complete removal of the tumor with nearby lymph nodes is required, since partial removal cannot guarantee the absence of relapse after some time.

Tumor removal can occur both in an open way (an incision in the lower abdomen) and with a laparoscope (5 holes in the lower abdomen and tube manipulation)

Loparoscopic surgery has some advantages: less bruising, more chances to maintain the vascular nerve bundle, which is responsible for sexual function. But of course it is more expensive and requires more knowledge and experience from the surgeon.

 

n the clinics that we recommend in Spain, for example, such operations are mainly performed by the laparoscopic method and also with the help of a robot assistant, which increases the accuracy of the surgeon.

In addition, chemotherapy is also prescribed for the prevention of metastases.

Third stage prostate cancer treatmen

In the third stage, the capsule of the prostate is already torn and removal of the prostate gland, along with all the affected tissues around it, is required. The operation will most likely be performed in an open way, for a better view and complete removal by the surgeon of all affected tissues. Combination with radiation therapy and chemotherapy can give good results.

Life after prostate cancer treatment

When diagnosed in stages 1-2, patients have a very high chance of no relapse in subsequent life. There are also high chances of maintaining sexual function when using the laparoscopic method of tumor removal. Within 3-4 weeks, the patient will be able to independently go to the toilet and return to normal life. Early diagnosis and treatment in professional clinics in Europe helps to completely cure cancer in our time!

 

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